What is DNS and How DNS Works? (Domain Name Server Fundamentals)

Hacking with New Ideas

DNS
DNS stands for Domain Name System, or Domain Name Server.

DNS resolves an IP address to a hostname or vice versa.

DNS is basically a large database which resides on various computers that contains the names and IP addresses of various hosts/domains. Other than ip-address DNS also associates various information with the domain names.

Structure of a DNS

DNS uses a hierarchical tree based name structure. At top of the tree is the “root” ( represented as a dot (.) ) followed by the TLD ( Top Level Domain ), then by the domain-name and any number of lower level sob-domains separated by a dot.

The Top Level Domains are divided into 2 categories:

  • 1. Generic TLD (gTLD)
  • 2. Country Code TLD (ccTLD)

Below are some of the common Generic Top Level Domains:

  • .com – comercial web sites
  • .org – non profit organizations web sites
  • .edu – restricted to schools…

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